A balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel.
2. Arachnoid Cyst
Benign fluid-filled collections that can occur in the brain.
Inflammation occurring in joints. Arthritis can occur due to wear and tear that comes with aging and overuse, or caused by a disorder or disease.
4. Bulging Disc
A disc, the soft, elastic "cushion" between vertebrae, that is protruding, or bulging, outside the area that it is supposed to be in.
5. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
The compression of the median nerve at the wrist.
6. Cervical Radiculopathy
A problem at the nerve root(s) in the neck cause nerves to stop functioning properly. This can lead to pain, numbness, tingling, or a weakness in limbs.
For more information, watch our Cervical Radiculopathy video.
7. Chiari Malformation
The downward movement of the brain through the opening at the base of the skull.
A mild traumatic brain injury, most commonly caused by a blow to the head.
The bruising of the brain due to traumatic injury.
10. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
The compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow.
11. Diabetic Neuropathy
Irreparable nerve damage due to diabetes.
12. Degenerative Disc Disease
Erosion and deterioration of the discs in the spine. This is most commonly caused by the natural aging process.
For more information, see our Degenerative Disc Disease video.
An infection of the disc space.
14. Herniated Disc
A disc with a tear in it. Sometimes this allows the soft inside of a disc to spill out through the elastic skin that normally holds a disc together.
See our Herniated Disc Video for more information.
Pain, numbness and weakness of a nerve.
A disease or malfunction of the nervous system, often causing pain or numbness. Neuropathy occurs when there is nothing structurally wrong with the spine, but there is still nerve damage, commonly from diabetes or trauma. Spinal Cord Stimulation is often a way to relieve this pain.
18. RSD: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
"Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy", nerve damage typically in the upper extremities causing severe pain, swelling and changes in the skin.
Pain, numbness and weakness in the Sciatic nerve (lower limbs).
A curvature of the spine.
Abnormal excessive activity in the brain resulting in a "seizing up" of the muscles and sometimes thrashing movements.
22. Spinal Stenosis
A narrowing of the spinal canal. This puts pressure on nerves resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, and in extreme cases loss of limb function.
For more information, watch the Spinal Stenosis video.
A "slipped disc", the sliding of one vertebral body on another.
Permanent injury to the brain or spinal cord.
25. TIA: Transient Ischemic Attack
Mild injury to the brain.
26. Trigeminal neuralgia
Irritation of the trigeminal nerve causing severe facial pain.
1. ACDF: Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion
A neck surgery involving the removal of damaged discs, and the fusing together of vertebrae, to stabilize the damaged area of the Cervical Spine.
See our ACDF Video Tutorial for a full explanation of the surgery.
2. ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
A lower back surgery involving the fusion of vertebrae to create spinal stability.
See our ALIF Video Tutorial for a full explanation of the surgery.
3. Bone Graft
A step taken in many surgeries, particularly fusions. In a fusion, a bone graft is healthy bone tissue, usually taken from the hip, which is placed between vertebrae and used in fusing them together.
4. Carpal Tunnel Release
Wrist surgery that relieves the pressure that may have been causing loss of feeling and strength in and around the fingers and thumb. It is frequently performed using only a local anesthetic, allowing the surgeon to make a tiny incision in the carpal ligament across the wrist.
A surgical procedure in which part of a disc is removed to relieve pressure.
A minimally invasive surgery in which balloons are expanded inside a vertebra until the desired adjustment is reached. Then, the space created by the balloons is filled with "bone cement" to create stability and hold the positioning created by the balloon adjustment.
For more information, see our Kyphoplasty Tutorial.
A surgical procedure in which part of the lamina, bone of the back of a vertebra, is removed to relieve pressure from the spinal cord.
For more information, see our Laminectomy video.
10. Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
A minimally invasive surgical procedure that is used to relieve pressure on nerve roots caused by a herniated disc.
For a full explanation, watch the Micro Endoscopic Discectomy Tutorial.
11. PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
A surgery that fuses two or more vertebrae together in order to create spinal stabilization.
For more details, watch the PLIF Tutorial.
12. Spinal Cord Stimulation
A treatment to chronic pain or neuropathy, spinal cord stimulation uses electrical impulses to interrupt pain signals and translate them into a different sensation that is more manageable.
For more details, watch the Spinal Cord Stimulation Video.
13. Spinal Fusion
The joining together of two or more levels of vertebrae through the use of bone grafts and internal hardware.
For a full explanation, see our Spinal Fusion Video.
14. Total Disc Replacement
A surgical procedure that replaces a damaged disc completely while still preserving the natural movement of the spine.
For a full explanation, see the Total Disc Replacement Tutorial.
15. Vagal Nerve Stimulation
A method used to treat seizures by using a 'pacemaker-like' device on the vagus nerve.
A minimally invasive surgery in which “Bone Cement” is injected into damaged vertebrae to create stabilization and relieve pressure.
For a full explanation, watch the Vertebroplasty Video.
1. Cervical Spine
The neck part of the spine. It consists of seven vertebrae and connects to the base of the skull.
The tailbone, connects to the base of the spinal column.
Soft, flexible “cushions” that are between each vertebrae in the spine.
4. Epidural Spine
The space in the spine between the spinal cord and the bone of the vertebrae.
A bone section of vertebrae that help protect the spinal cord.
6. Lumbar Spine
Commonly referred to as the lower back, the are the lowest five vertebrae above your hips, ending above the sacrum.
7. Nerve Roots
The part of a nerve that connects with the spinal cord.
Section of the spine where the pelvis connects. The sacrum is made of five fused vertebrae, meaning solid bone with no discs or flexibility.
9. Spinal Cord
A main part of the central nervous system, the spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that transmit messages to and from the brain to all other parts of the body. The spinal cord is protected by the spinal column.
10. Thoracic Spine
Commonly referred to as the middle back, the thoracic spine consists of the twelve vertebrae between the Cervical and Lumbar sections of the spine. This is where ribs connect to the spine.
The bone sections that make up the spine. They have a hollow center where the spinal cord is housed, bone projections for muscles to connect to, and hard bone called lamina connecting the projections and protecting the spine.
The plural form of the word Vertebra.